Everywhere Spoken Against:
Opposition to Pentecostalism 1907-1930.
The religious press has frequently attacked Pentecostalism. It has often received attention from the secular press. The report contained in the Los Angeles Times 1.of Wednesday, April 18th, 1906 9-part II p.1. played an important part in spreading the news of the reappearance of speaking in tongues, which was Pentecostalism’s most spectacular feature.
The dramatic record was heightened in its effect when the reporter recorded that one of the participants related a vision in which, “he prophesied awful destruction to this city.” On the morning that the report was published, San Francisco, some 400 miles away was shaken by an earthquake. On the following day at noon Los Angeles also felt a tremor. Frank Bartleman was sitting in Peniel Hall on South Main Street at the time. That night he went to William Joseph Seymour’s Azusa Street Mission for the first time. He recorded:
The newspapers began to ridicule and abuse the meetings, thus giving us much free advertising.2.
The first issue of the Azusa Street paper, Apostolic Faith,3. of September 1906, fell into the hands of the English-born Norwegian Methodist minister Thomas Ball Barratt in New York. He was staying at Dr A B Simpson’s Christian and Missionary Alliance Home at the time. Also at the Mission at that time was someone identified by Barratt as “ Pastor March D.D.”(sic)4. This was in fact Dr F E Marsh. He was the same F E Marsh who had been the minister of Bethesda Baptist Church, Sunderland from July 1887 to October 17, 1905.5.
T B Barratt arrived in Sunderland on Saturday, August 31st, 1907 where he was to preach for the vicar of All Saints’ Church, Alexander Boddy on the next day.
The minister of Bethesda Baptist Church in succession to Marsh was Graham Scroggie (1877-1958). Scroggie served as minister in Sunderland until September 1916 when he removed to Edinburgh as minister of Charlotte Chapel. Both during his time in Sunderland and later at Edinburgh he was to be one of the speakers at the Keswick Convention. By a strange coincidence the preacher at the Baptist Chapel on Sunday, September 1st was none other than F E Marsh. The two men do not seem to have met on this occasion but there can be no doubt that Marsh exchanged some words with Scroggie concerning Sunderland’s Norwegian visitor. Dr Marsh’s name crops up several times in later years, always as an opponent of Pentecostalism. Scroggie was on reasonably friendly terms with vicar Boddy and we find that he preached at Boddy’s church in 1909. His sermon on the Inspiration of the Bible was printed in All Saints’ Parish Magazine in June 1909.
There were to be many others who would also provide opposition to the infant movement.
There was another visiting preacher in Sunderland on the first Sunday in September 1907. This was the founder of the Pentecostal League, Richard Reader Harris K.C. (1847-1909). This Holiness group had a large following in Sunderland area where they had some nine centres. They sold more copies of their paper, Tongues of Fire in Sunderland than in any other place outside London.
Barratt in his Diary, 6 “ My Visit to England,” under the date of October 4th says:
Mr Reader Harris delivered two lectures in the Victoria Hall in this city last week. The first on ‘ Tongues’ and the second on ‘ Spiritism’ in which he denounced the movement in terms far from Christian at times,’
Barratt delivered an address in the Parish Hall on Sunday “…in which all his points were contested and according to the general opinion, perfectly refuted. One clergyman who was rather sceptical and anxious had not dared to attend the meetings or call at the Vicarage, rushed in after the lectures to congratulate Boddy with the success given me. He said that he had heard Mr R. H. lecture and that I had completely answered all his arguments. I thank God for these and intend to publish the address leaving out anything of a personal nature.”
Barratt issued a number of pamphlets and several of these were later incorporated into the first edition of his book, In The Days of the Latter Rain.7.
Dr Alfred T Schofield of 19 Harley Street, London visited Sunderland late in 1907 in connection with the writing of his book on Christian Sanity.8. In a later book of reminiscences entitled, Behind the Brass Plate, 9. he tells us that some of the members of his family had joined the Pentecostal Movement. He states that speaking in tongues seemed in his opinion to clash with the idea of Christian sanity! He therefore visited Sunderland in order to investigate the matter at first hand. He does not give us the date but the “ able and quiet clergyman, who did not himself speak in tongues at all-but was waiting for the gift” was Boddy. We know from Boddy’s, Pentecost at Sunderland: A Vicar’s Testimony, 10. that he spoke in tongues for the first time on December 2, 1907. In the later book Dr Schofield tells this story under the headline, “ Odd stories.”
As well as writing several short items in his paper, Tongues of Fire,11.Reader Harris issued a pamphlet entitled, The Gift of Tongues: A Warning. In this he was forced on the defensive and had to concede 1. That the gift of tongues was not unscriptural. 2. That tongues may accompany the Pentecostal blessing. 3. By having to concede that not all Christians have the gift he was forced to admit that some might have. If a leading King’s Council had to admit so much where did that leave the less sophisticated member of the League? No wonder that the Pentecostal teaching made such inroads into the ranks of the Pentecostal League. Some years later another Holiness writer, A M Hills of Star Hall, Ancoats, Manchester, wrote an even more scathing attack in his booklet, The Tongues Movement.
The Life of Faith and Graham Scroggie.
In 1913 Miss Ada R Habershom wrote a pamphlet, The Strong Man Spoiled.12.
She gave it the sub-title, “ as shown by the self-styled ‘ Pentecost’ ‘Spirits.’” This was advertised in the Life of Faith of February 12th, 1913. It appeared as a footnote by the editor that was attached to a letter from a North London Baptist minister that protested at the inclusion of a previous item from Dr W H Griffith Thomas. The minister was A E Saxby (1873-1960) 13. who was the minister of a small church in Harringay. At the time that he wrote the letter he himself had not spoken in tongues. His church was divided on the issue. In spite of the intervention of the Secretary of the Baptist Union a majority of the church left along with the minister and they founded an independent Pentecostal Church that became known as Derby Hall. Saxby continued as the minister for many years. It was to this assembly that the young Donald Gee attached himself and at which he acted as organist when the Baptist organist became leader of the opposition party. Saxby became Donald Gee’s first and only pastor. For a short time he was an important figure in British Pentecostalism but, when, in 1923 he began to adopt and to propagate the doctrine known as “ Ultimate Reconciliation, ” he parted company with mainstream Pentecostalism.
The editor of the Life of Faith, a very important periodical for tracing religious opinions and movements in Britain and one that has been largely ignored by researchers, including Bloch-Hoell.
The editor wrote:
We do not for a moment impugn our correspondent’s good faith when he claims ‘ that thing is of God,’ but from what we have seen and heard of it from ourselves, we do not hesitate to say that its controlling power has most certainly not been Divine. We must therefore repeat the warning that in seeking for particular ‘ gifts ‘ of the Spirit, instead of the Giver Himself, Christians are running into deadly peril. Those who desire to study the subject for themselves should read, ‘ The Baptism of the Spirit and Speaking in Tongues’ by Rev. W. Graham Scroggie. (6d. net. from the author, 8 Cedars Park, Sunderland).
Scroggie sent out review copies to several magazines, including the Christian, Life of Faith, The Sword and the Trowel and Tongues of Fire. He also sent copies to Campbell Morgan, F B Meyer, Sir Robert Anderson (head of Scotland Yard from 1888-1901) and W H Griffiths Thomas and many more.
Campbell Morgan wrote in reply:
I read last night…with the keenest interest, your pamphlet, I want to thank you profoundly for it… I have for a long time, and against a good deal of criticism, been insisting that the baptism of the Spirit is the initial blessing. You have dealt with this more exhaustedly, and set forth more clearly than I have done, and I am thankful. The exposition on speaking in tongues too is exactly what I needed at the present time.
On the same day he sent a telegram:
Mail me today fifty tongues pamphlets trade terms sending Bill.
When Scroggie’s extensive archives came on the market in 1983 it still contained a considerable number of letters from prominent evangelical leaders from that period.
Dr W H Griffith Thomas (1861-1924), Principal of Wycliffe College Toronto, wrote to Graham Scroggie on December 13, 1912 to enquire, “… if there is any literature, book, pamphlet or magazine connected with the Tongues Movement in England, especially in Sunderland?” He said he wanted to be able to provide material for a discussion on the subject. It is to his credit that he was prepared to read some of the literature produced by the Pentecostals limited as such literature was at that time.
Amongst the Scroggie papers and a library of more than 8,000 volumes there was not a single book, pamphlet or periodical written by any Pentecostal writer. The only items that I came across were a photograph of Mrs Boddy and two later pictures of Aimee Semple McPherson and Angelus Temple.
F B Meyer wrote to Scroggie from Regent’s Park Chapel, London:
I am sure that your conclusions are in accordance with truth. 24.8. XII
Alexander Boddy wrote a letter that was published in The Record at the end of March 1907. This was after his visit to Norway earlier in the month. He followed this with two more letters that were published in the Christian in August.
Dr A T Pierson, who was minister of Spurgeon’s Tabernacle, London and editor of the Missionary Review of the World, contributed a series of articles on Speaking in Tongues in the Life of Faith in May and July 1907. In 1900 when he wrote his book, Forward Movements in the Half Last Century it contained a chapter on “ The Pentecostal Movement.” This told the story of the work of James Pilkington (1865-1897) of Uganda.
Jessie Penn-Lewis (1861-1927) wrote a long series of articles warning of the inherent “dangers” in Pentecostalism. These appeared in the pages of the Christian from January to March 1908. Her War on the Saints (1912) was widely read. The periodical the The Overcome (Vol.1, No. 1 January 1909) was to become the chief vehicle for her teaching until her death on August 15th, 1927.
Philip Mauro (1859-1952), an American patent lawyer and author of a booklet, Concerning Spiritual Gifts14 wrote two articles in the Christian in January 1911. He returned to the subject once more in July 1921.
After writing two small booklets early in 1912 (which were to be reprinted many times virtually unchanged even into the late 1950s- though they were all undated), Scroggie waited until April and May 1917 before he wrote three articles in the Life of Faith.
Articles against Pentecostalism in the period between 1914-1918 were rare. With the outbreak of the First World War most ministers had other things to occupy their minds. Some were unfortunately busily engaged in a recruiting drive. The majority of Pentecostals (except the Apostolic Faith group from Bournemouth), and their young men in particular had a conscientious objection to war. Some, like Donald Gee15. and John Carter were granted exemption. Others, such as Howard Carter were imprisoned in Wakefield or Dartmoor. Evangelistic activity was curtailed and the Sunderland Convention of 1914 was to be the last to be held. There was little or no time for the niceties of theological debate. Few Pentecostals possessed the theological equipment necessary for such a conflict. They sought to propagate their teaching in a growing number of magazines and pamphlets. They were no Tracts For the Times; there was no Apologia. The magazines were not deeply doctrinal; they were strongly experiential and they gained and retained a regular clientele. Their influence cannot be overestimated.
The one who stands at the head of the list as far as Great Britain was concerned was Alexander A Boddy’s paper, Confidence. This first appeared as a monthly from April 1908 and it continued for 105 issues until January/February 1917. It was then published every two months until December 1924. There was one issue dated May 1925 and a final issue in 1926.
Stanley Frodsham (1882-1969)16. of Bournemouth, who was to be the editor of the Pentecostal Evangel from 1921 to 1940, began his editorial work on his own British paper, Victory Vol.1, April 1909. This was continued until 1916 even though he left England in1913.
Cecil Polhill (1860-1938) a former member of the “ Cambridge Seven” and missionary to China was baptised in the Spirit in Los Angeles on February 3rd 1908 in the home of George B Studd. On his return to Britain he associated himself with the Pentecostals and he gave a considerable amount of money to many of their early efforts. He published a magazine, Flames of Fire with Which is Incorporated Tidings from Tibet and Other Lands. Vol.1, No. 1, October 1911. This was continued until 1925. Its main interest is its reports on the work of the Pentecostal Missionary Union.
Harry Eugene Cantel of the Christian Assembly, Upper Street, Islington, London let it be known in December 1908 that he was bringing out a paper that he would re-name the Overcomer. Mrs Penn-Lewis who registered her paper at the Stationers’ Hall at the same time with that name upstaged him. He therefore took the name The Overcoming Life.Vol.1.No.1, January 1909. This continued until his premature death at the age of 44 on August 21, 1910. The paper was taken over for a time by T M Jeffreys and ran for a time under the name of Omega and the Overcoming Life.
William Oliver Hutchinson of Bournemouth began to publish Showers of Blessing, Vol.1 No.1, January 1910. This continued until past 1926 when No. 50 was printed. This was the official publication of the Apostolic Faith Church in Great Britain.
It is not known for certain how many British Pentecostal papers were published during this period. Many of them were of short duration. Most of them have somehow escaped even the British Library Catalogue. Discovery however is not always easy as they are not all listed under Periodicals where they would be listed under the name of the town of origin. The most important, Confidence is not found in that great library. The British Assemblies of God had an almost complete set [now housed in the Donald Gee Centre at Mattersey Hall, where, interestingly some of the Jessie Penn-Lewis is also held. Some of the missing papers were added from her collection]. When the Brethren writer G H Lang 17. published his pamphlet the The Early Years of the Tongues Movement18. he had a set of Confidence loaned to him. [It is now clear that these were that same set that came from Mrs Penn-Lewis’s set] In 1913 Lang wrote a larger book the Modern Gift of Tongues: What is it? .
Separate Pentecostal groups began to emerge in Britain. The first was the Apostolic Faith of William Oliver Hutchinson. Next came what was to become the Elim Pentecostal Church that George Jeffreys first founded in Ireland in 1915. This was followed by the Apostolic Church established in Penygroes, Wales in 1916 by Daniel Powell Williams. Many of the remaining independent Pentecostal churches came together in Birmingham in 1924 to form the Assemblies of God of Great Britain and Ireland. Each of these groups soon began to issue their own magazines. The Apostolic Faith in Bournemouth issued the first of these in January 1910. This was entitled, Showers of Blessing. It was published monthly until 1925.
The Apostolic Church first issued their paper, Riches of Grace in April 1916.
The Elim Evangel began in December 1919, first as a quarterly eventually becoming a weekly publication.
The Assemblies of God issued Redemption Tidings in July 1924 as a monthly publication.
Each of these was widely read and they became house journals aimed specifically at their own clientele. They contained a good deal of news of meetings as well as also carrying regular contributions on doctrinal subjects that supported their Pentecostal position.
The opposition to Pentecostalism in Britain falls into four clear periods. The first period was from October 1907 to 1908. The second period was in 1913. The third time was in 1921-22 and the fourth in 1930. These might be conveniently thought of as the curious, the cautious, the critical and the caustic.
During the first two periods most of the opposition was from the religious press and from fellow evangelicals who were opposed to the teaching on speaking in tongues.
This was the main issue of disagreement in the first period. In the second period the topic was not raised so frequently. It seems from correspondence that has recently come to light that some editors thought it better not to mention “ tongues” in their papers or correspondence columns with the hope that the matter would die out.
The later opposition came in regard to Divine healing that was the other distinguishing feature associated with Pentecostalism. Some might have allowed this if it had been the simple quiet prayer offered by a minister at the bedside of a sick person. When those who were looked upon as evangelists who boldly laid hands on the sick took this up, this was thought of as a step too far. To take one example of this we will look at what happened to Stephen Jeffreys (1876-143).
In October 1921 Stephen Jeffreys held a Mission at Horbury Chapel, Kensington.
This had the enthusiastic support of the minister, Frederick William Pitt. The relationship between the two men was so good that an Agreement (which is still extant) was drawn up in which Stephen should become “… associated with him [Mr Pitt] as assistant minister or co-pastor of the said chapel.” In fact it went on further to add that in the event of the demise of Mr Pitt, who was older than Stephen, that Stephen should become the sole pastor.
The Mission was a great success and they had to employ extra people to help with the correspondence that arose as a consequence and the influx of many new people. In letters to Stephen Mr Pitt acknowledged that there were many genuine converts at this time. The young Donald Gee, then in his first pastorate in Edinburgh was brought to London where he acted as pianist for the meetings.
A second Mission was planned for 1922. In anticipation of the success of the next effort Mr Pitt spent £250 on advertising and on the redecoration of the chapel. Then, suddenly for some strange reason Mr Pitt wrote a very strongly worded article for the magazine, Prophetic News and Israel’s Messenger. A booklet followed this up on The Tongues Baptism. This was published by what he named the West London Bible Institute (Second edition 1925).
As might have been expected, Stephen withdrew from the proposed visit to Horbury Chapel. It is worth noting here that today this is the home of the leading Elim Church whose congregation runs into thousands with multiple services and a very large staff.
The building was to be acquired by Stephen’s brother George in 1930 after it had seriously declined in numbers.
When Stephen withdrew Mr Pitt declared that he was “shocked and pained” that he had withdrawn his agreement to go to Horbury Chapel. He wrote threatening to sue Stephen for the money that they had spent in advance of the visit. This was for the publicity as well as for the cost of the redecoration of the building in anticipation of the expected increase in the numbers attending. Even more strange was his claim that he did not know that Stephen was associated with the Pentecostals. How he could fain such ignorance is difficult to understand. The Prophetic News and other papers had carried reports of George and Stephen’s meetings.
In his reply Stephen said that he found this difficult to understand. He went on to explain that he had also testified that he had been baptised in the Spirit and that he had said such at a meeting in the presence of Mr Pitt. The only response from Mr Pitt was another pamphlet entitled, Faith Healing Tragedies. The Brethren publisher, Pickering and Inglis, published this.
Further light is thrown upon this time in a letter to Stephen from Dr Ernest Goode written on Christian Herald notepaper on March 28th 1922. He told Stephen that several Christian leaders were refusing to take part in the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Prophetical Society. The reason for this was that Stephen and George Jeffreys were to take part in these meetings. Stephen had played an important part in the meetings in 1921. He had held special meetings in the same hall on the eve of the conference. The Prophetic News had carried a half-page notice of his meetings.
According to Dr Goode’s letter (he was Honorary Secretary of the Prophetical Society) these leaders were, Mrs Reader Harris (head of the Pentecostal League-a Holiness and second coming movement); D M Panton, a well-known writer and pamphleteer; Rev Percy Hicks, acting editor of the Christian Herald and F E Marsh who became editor of Prophetic News. He went on to say that Percy Hicks had so poisoned the mind of Baxter, the proprietor of the Christian Herald against the brothers that he had instructed Dr Goode to cross their names off the list of speakers for the sake of peace. He also crossed off the names of Marsh and Hicks! He had told Dr Goode privately that he would invite the brothers to speak without having their names on the bills.
It just at this time that the brothers were beginning to see an increasing response to their work, particularly in Grimsby and in Clapham, London. In both of these places they were able to establish strong churches that were their first on the mainland.
When the Elim Evangelistic Band was first established in Ireland in 1915 it was set up with the deliberate intention to reach men and women for Christ. In their Minute Book it was clearly stated that:
The aim of the Alliance [is] not to be that of encouraging members to leave their denominations. June 7, 1918,p.12.
Stephen wrote a letter of reply to Mr Pitt on July 28th 1922. In this he expressed his deep sense of pain at the remarks on Pentecostals that had been made. The two men were now so far apart that they had to go their separate ways. For a few years Stephen would work with his brother George before linking with the Assemblies of God for few years. Later he went on a worldwide tour of preaching that took him to the USA, New Zealand, Australia and South Africa and Europe. Mr Pitt declined into obscurity.
Stephen’s meetings were widely reported in the press during this time. The chief focus of attention was on healing rather than on glossolalia (which was a less public affair). It should be stated Pentecostal teaching on the baptism of the Spirit with the evidence of speaking in tongues formed a part of the proclamation of his evangelistic preaching though George Jeffreys in common with Boddy and Polhill did not teach this as “ initial evidence.”
The total coverage obtained by the Pentecostals in the period between 1922 and 1930 was very considerable (even if we leave aside consideration of the negative effect of some of the association with Aimee McPherson). During these years they opened over 200 churches in spite of difficult social conditions.
George, Stephen and Stephen’s son Edward all attracted large crowds to their meetings in spite of the fact that they had little support from the main denominations. Towards the end of this period the opposition was replaced by massive indifference.
The Pentecostals went on their way opening up a large number of churches and winning many converts. Not all of the converts joined the Pentecostal churches; many went back to their own denominations with a newfound zeal. Many of those who went back to their former associates were not welcomed. It was not only for their Pentecostalism (for new converts had to be taught what that meant) but also for their infectious enthusiasm and in their lively singing and clapping.
The two areas of criticism around 1930 stood polls apart. The first came from a wild Fundamentalist paper, The Bible Witness, which, in an item in its issue of April 1930 was so extreme that they were forced to publish an Apology on account of the defamatory nature of the item. The paper did not give up however and they continued to publish equally wicked reports that were never better than the gossip of evil minds. None of these reports gave names or places. They can be ignored but for the fact that they reflect an attitude or mentality that needs to be taken into account when modern writers wrongly accuse Pentecostals of deliberately setting out to divide Christian communities by seeking to set up separate churches.
The other article that we pause to notice was one that was contained in the journal, John Bull of January 18th 1930. It carried the title, “ Frenzied Victims of Hypnotic Pastors.” It contained a picture of George Jeffreys and two members of his Revival Party. Without actually accusing them of fraud and dishonesty, it lumped them together with several others who were accused of obtaining money and goods by false pretences.
Elim’s legal advisor, John Leech K.C., was in favour of making a case of the matter. The Overseers of Elim were not in favour of such action. Horatio Bottomley (1860-1933) the proprietor of the paper had faced many libel actions before- most of which he had lost. He himself had been sentenced to seven years imprisonment for fraud. The report was disturbing and at the time that it appeared George was preaching in Glasgow where he was to open a new church. A few people attempted to interrupt the meeting by demanding that he answer the unfounded allegations. He soon dealt with their complaints as he told them if they had any evidence to offer they could go to the appropriate authorities. That was the end of the matter.
In March 1930 George Jeffreys began meetings in Ebenezer Congregational Church, Steelhouse Lane, Birmingham. A recent researcher has said that the city had been, “ notoriously inhospitable to revivalist religion.” It had a varied history. Unitarians had been strongly represented in the city for many years. John Angel James and his successor Dr R W Dale had represented the nonconformist tradition. The Anglican Church, who’s first Bishop had been Charles Gore was then represented by Bishop Barnes.
Whatever its past history it was open for a move of God. It was to be the scene of George Jeffreys greatest Crusade. Beginning with less than twenty in the first Wednesday afternoon, within five days the large church was full and they had to move progressively to larger meeting places. These were successively, the Town Hall, the largest Skating Rink in Europe (seating 8,000) and finally for the last two weeks the massive Bingley Hall Exhibition Centre (where he preached twenty-six times). It was George’s longest and most successful mission. They recorded some 10,000 converts and within 5 or 6 years they had opened six churches.
There had been a small gathering held in nearby Smethwick in the Temperance Hall, Cross Street in March 1909. Alexander Boddy, Cecil Polhill, A M Niblock and G R Polman from Holland addressed the meeting. Who would have guessed that a Pentecostal preacher would draw such crowds some twenty years later?
Now, Birmingham is one of the places where the University has a department especially devoted to the study of Pentecostalism.
None of us wants to go back to those intolerant times. On the other hand a real or perceived opposition is said to be the “ Fifth Factor” crucial to the growth and spread of a modern religious movement. This may be true but the promise of the writer of Proverbs is better:
“When a man’s ways are pleasing to the LORD, he makes even his enemies live at peace with him”. Proverbs 16:7.
1. Reprinted in Frank Bartleman’s, Azusa Street, Logos, Plainfield, N.J., 1980, pp.174-177.
2. Bartleman, Frank, What Happened at Azusa Street, Voice Publications, Northridge, Cal., 1982, p.26.
3. Like as of Fire, Reprint of the old Azusa Street papers collected by Fred T Corum, Wilmington, Mass., 1981. This is a reprint of the first 13 issues of the Los Angeles, Apostolic Faith from September 1906 to May 1908.
4. T B Barratt, When the Fire Fell: An Outline of My Life, Alfons Hansen and Somer, Oslo, Norway, 1926, p.113. Idem. Erindring,, Oslo, 1941, p. 106.
5. Bethesda Record, ed. Graham Scroggie, Sunderland, October 1907, p.5.
6. The original of Barratt’s Diary, “ My Visit to England, 1907” is now deposited in Oslo State University Library together with his papers.
7. T B Barratt, In the Days of the Latter Rain, Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent and Co. Ltd., 1909. Reprinted by Elim Publishing Company, Clapham, London 1928.
8. A T Schofield, Christian Sanity, 1908, 2nd edition 1926.
9. A T Schofield, Behind the Brass Plate, Sampson and Low, Marston and Co. Ltd., n.d.
10. A A Boddy, Pentecost For Sunderland: A Vicar’s Testimony, 5th reprint 1909.
11. These are: October 1907, p.11; April 1907, p. 6; July 1907, p. 6.; September 1907, p.9. November 1907, p.1ff; January 1907, p.7. For details see Bloch-Hoell, p.82. Also in more detail Martin Robinson, Two Anglican Pentecostal Clergymen: A Comparison between the Life and Work of Alexander A Boddy and Michael C Harper, M. Litt. Diss. Birmingham University, 1976.
12. Ada R Habershom, The Strong Man Spoiled, Pickering and Inglis.
13. For A E Saxby see Donald Gee, These Men I Knew, See also A E Saxby, Things New and Old, Vol 1, No. 1, April 1921.
14. Philip Mauro, Concerning Spiritual Gifts, Morgan and Scott, London, 1908.
15. For Gee see B R Ross, In Search of a Church, D. Th. thesis, Knox College, Toronto, Canada, 1974. For Howard Carter see, John Carter, Howard Carter-Man of the Spirit, Assemblies of God, Nottingham, 1971. John Carter, A Full Life, Assemblies of God, Nottingham, 1979.
16. For Stanley Frodsham see his daughter’s biography, Faith Campbell, Stanley Frodshan: Prophet With a Pen, Assemblies of God Publishing House, Springfield, Missouri, 1974. Confidence, Ed. Alexander Boddy, November 1908.
17. G H Lang, The Modern Tongues Movement, Wimborne, Dorset, 1958.